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Category Archives: Case Comments

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Ivic. v. Lakovic: vicarious liability is no short-cut to compensation

Posted in Case Comments, Criminal, Employment Law

On June 2, 2017, the Ontario Court of Appeal decided, in what it described as a case of first impression, that a taxi company was not vicariously liable for a sexual assault allegedly committed by one of its employees, absent any evidence of fault on its part.

Following the Court’s review and affirmation of the leading jurisprudence on vicarious liability, it is doubtful that any car passenger service company could be found liable for the independent and wrongful criminal conduct of its drivers.

Background

The Appellant was intoxicated and feeling unwell while at a party. The Appellant’s friend ordered … Continue Reading

The SCC versus the “culture of complacency”: R. v. Cody

Posted in Case Comments, Criminal

In R v. Cody, 2017 SCC 31, the Supreme Court of Canada reiterated its earlier call for reform to the criminal justice system, criticizing a “culture of complacency” toward delays. The Court’s insistence on reform may be good news for participants in the civil justice system, too, who have seen many civil actions delayed as courts devote their limited resources to clearing their criminal dockets.… Continue Reading

The Supreme Court concludes there is no need to prove psychiatric illness to establish mental injury: Saadati v. Moorhead

Posted in Case Comments, Personal Injury

Is a Plaintiff required to prove that they suffer from a recognized psychiatric illness in order to recover for mental injury? The Supreme Court has definitively said the answer is “no” in their recent decision in Saadati v Moorhead, a case that will be critically important to anyone who regularly prosecutes or defends personal injury claims.… Continue Reading

The Final Word? The Ontario Court of Appeal denies nunc pro tunc relief in Pennyfeather v. Timminco

Posted in Case Comments, Class Actions, Securities

In Pennyfeather v. Timminco (“Pennyfeather”), the Ontario Court of Appeal delivered yet another ruling concerning the interaction between the limitation period for obtaining leave to commence an action for misrepresentation in the secondary securities market under s. 138.14 of the Ontario Securities Act (the “OSA”), and s. 28  of the Class Proceedings Act (the “CPA”), which suspends a limitation period in favour of class members for a cause of action asserted in a class proceeding upon commencement of the class proceeding.… Continue Reading

Can a Party get Special Costs based on Pre-Litigation Conduct?

Posted in Case Comments, Procedure, Real Property

In Smithies Holdings Inc. v. RCV Holdings Ltd., 2017 BCCA 177, the BC Court of Appeal considered whether special costs can be awarded based on pre-litigation conduct.  The Court reviewed the conflicting jurisprudence and unanimously concluded that a bright line should be drawn: pre-litigation conduct should not be considered in determining whether to award special costs.… Continue Reading

Accounting for Preference: BCCA Reaffirms the Wide Discretion of Class Action Certification Judges

Posted in Case Comments, Class Actions

The BC Court of Appeal recently reaffirmed the principles of preferability in class action certification proceedings in the case of Vaugeois v Budget Rent-A-Car, wherein the certification judge had determined that a class proceeding was not the preferable forum to decide the disputes between vehicle renters who had allegedly been improperly  charged for vehicle repairs.… Continue Reading

No Place To Hide: Service In States That Are Not Signatories To The Hague Convention

Posted in Case Comments, Procedure

On February 23, 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada refused leave to appeal the Court of Appeal’s decision in Xela Enterprises Ltd. v. Castillo: a case in which the Court determined that it is acceptable to serve parties in accordance with the Rules of Civil Procedure in states that are not signatories to the Hague Convention.… Continue Reading

Municipalities Can’t Bike Around Risk Management

Posted in Case Comments, Occupiers Liability Act

On February 16, 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada refused leave to appeal the 2016 decision of the Ontario Court of Appeal in Campbell v. Bruce (County): a case in which an Ontario municipality that operated a mountain biking adventure park (the “Bike Park”)  was found liable, as occupier, for the accident that rendered cyclist Stephen Campbell a quadriplegic.… Continue Reading

No Jury Trial for Securities Offences: Economic Penalties Are Not A “More Severe Punishment” Under Section 11(f) of the Charter

Posted in Case Comments, Charter of Rights, Constitutional, Criminal, Procedural Rights, Securities, Supreme Court of Canada

Is a $5 million fine a less severe punishment than a night in jail?  Are hefty financial penalties for quasi-criminal or regulatory offences able to trigger the procedural protections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms when combined with the threat of imprisonment? The Supreme Court of Canada had the opportunity to address these questions when it recently released the twin decisions of R v Peers, 2017 SCC 13 and R v Aitkens, 2017 SCC 14.… Continue Reading

The Supreme Court of Canada Searches for Goldilocks: Is the Jurisdiction of the Federal Court Narrow, Broad, or Just Right?

Posted in Case Comments, Statutory

One of the first lessons I remember being taught as a law student about statutory interpretation was to look at both the words of the statute and the purpose Parliament intended in enacting the statute. I quickly learned that statutory interpretation can be somewhat of a headache because, sometimes, the words and the purpose of the statute are at odds with each other. What to do then?… Continue Reading

The Alberta Court of Appeal clarifies the organizing principle of good faith with style

Posted in Case Comments, Contracts

In Styles v Alberta Investment Management Corporation (“Styles”),[1] the Alberta Court of Appeal provided useful guidance on the application of the organizing principle of good faith in contractual performance, established by the Supreme Court of Canada in its landmark decision Bhasin v Hrynew (“Bhasin”).[2] Since Bhasin, there has been a lack of clarity on how to apply and consider the organizing principle. In Styles, the Alberta Court of Appeal (1) expressly declined to expand the organizing principle to create a “common law duty of reasonable exercise of discretionary contractual powers”, (2) recognized other key … Continue Reading

The Supreme Court of Canada (Clearly and Expressly) Affirms the Importance of Solicitor-Client and Litigation Privilege

Posted in Case Comments, Privilege

In two recent companion decisions, the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed the importance of litigation privilege and solicitor-client privilege to the Canadian legal system. In Lizotte v. Aviva Insurance Company of Canada[1] (Lizotte), the Court recognized litigation privilege as a distinct and fundamental principle of the administration of justice, while in Alberta (Information and Privacy Commissioner) v. University of Calgary[2] (Alberta (Information and Privacy Commissioner)), the Court focused on issues of solicitor-client privilege. These decisions both confirm that for the legislature to abrogate either litigation privilege or solicitor-client privilege, nothing less than clear and … Continue Reading

Business Realities v. Narrow Legalities: The Supreme Court considers the oppression remedy in Mennillo v. Intramodal Inc., 2016 SCC 51

Posted in Case Comments, Corporate Law

In Mennillo v. Intramodal Inc. 2016 SCC 51, the most recent consideration of the oppression remedy by the Supreme Court of Canada (released on November 18, 2016), the majority confirmed the oppression remedy’s equitable purpose, and held that a corporation’s failure to comply with the CBCA[1] does not, on its own, constitute oppression.

This decision, with particular applicability to small, closely held corporations, reiterated oppression remedy principles set out in the 2008 Supreme Court decision of BCE Inc. v. 1976 Debentureholders,[2] that the remedy is concerned with fairness and business realities, rather than narrow legalities.[3]… Continue Reading

Indeterminate Liability of Auditors and the Dangers of Partial Summary Judgment

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce v Deloitte & Touche, 2016 ONCA 922

Posted in Case Comments, Procedure, Professions

In a decision released on December 8, 2016, the Ontario Court of Appeal allowed an appeal from partial summary judgment, holding that issues of indeterminate auditor liability should proceed to trial.

Facts

In 1998, an accounting fraud was discovered at Philip Services Corp. (“Philip”), a publicly traded company. The Plaintiffs alleged that Philip’s auditors, Deloitte and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (“Deloitte”) gave unqualified opinions in connection with its audits of Philip’s consolidated financial statements for the financial years ending December 31, 1995 and 1996.… Continue Reading

English Court of Appeal Rejects the “Organizing Principle of Good Faith”

Posted in Case Comments, Contracts

The Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Bhasin v. Hrynew[1] – on which this blog has commented – marked a sea change in Canadian contract law. In Bhasin, the Court recognized an “organizing principle of good faith” in contractual relations that underpins numerous specific doctrines, including, for example, unconscionability and the treatment of discretionary contractual powers.… Continue Reading

Key Banking Decisions of 2016: The Supreme Court of Canada releases its decision in Royal Bank of Canada v. Trang

Posted in Case Comments, Privacy

A recent article, published by McCarthy Tetrault LLP may be of interest to readers of the Canadian Appeals Monitor blog.

The Supreme Court of Canada released a landmark decision on November 17, 2016 giving important guidance on how Canada’s federal privacy law, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, should be interpreted in Royal Bank of Canada v. Trang, 2016 SCC 50.… Continue Reading

Policyholders stay tuned: final word on the LEG 2/96 defective workmanship exclusion yet to come

Posted in Case Comments, Contracts, Insurance

As we reported here, the BC Court of Appeal in Acciona Infrastructure Canada Inc. v. Allianz Global Risks US Insurance Company grappled with the proper interpretation of the LEG 2/96 defective workmanship exclusion common in many builder’s risk insurance policies. Applying general principles of contract interpretation the Court held that the exclusion is restricted to denying only those costs that would have been incurred to prevent the damage from happening. Having been unsuccessful on the appeal, the Insurers filed an application for leave to the Supreme Court of Canada.… Continue Reading

The Supreme Court of Canada Clarifies the Test and Procedure for Joint Submissions on Sentencing

Posted in Case Comments, Criminal

In R. v. Anthony‑Cook, 2016 SCC 43, the Supreme Court of Canada recently confirmed that trial judges should only depart from a joint submission in very limited circumstances, where the sentence proposed would bring the administration of justice into disrepute, or is otherwise not in the public interest.

Resolution negotiations are a prevalent and necessary feature of our criminal justice system. They allow the Crown and the accused to avoid the uncertainty, stress and legal costs associated with trials where the accused admits guilt and is not exercising his right to make full answer and defence. Resolutions … Continue Reading

Hamilton City’s Attempt to Stamp Out Community Mail Delivery Ruled Unconstitutional (Sort of)

Posted in Case Comments, Constitutional

In response to Canada Post’s announcement that it was restructuring its mail delivery and doing away with home delivery services, the City of Hamilton passed a by-law giving the City control over the installation of equipment on municipal roads, including Canada Post’s community mailbox (“CMB”) delivery systems. Last week, the Ontario Court of Appeal held[1] that the by-law was constitutionally inoperative to Canada Post since it conflicted with the federal Canada Post Corporation Act[2] and the Mail Receptacles Regulations.[3] The Court of Appeal’s decision highlights a tension in the pith and substance jurisprudence between the principle of … Continue Reading

The Ontario Court of Appeal Weighs in on the Jordan Framework for Trial Within a Reasonable Time

Posted in Case Comments, Criminal

As discussed in our previous post, the Supreme Court of Canada recently dramatically altered the framework applicable to the right to a criminal trial within a reasonable time in R. v. Jordan, 2016 SCC 27. This decision has already had a significant impact on the operation of criminal courts in Ontario.

In light of this decision, the Ontario Court of Appeal requested further submissions on two s. 11(b) appeals that had already been argued before the Court under the previous framework. On September 28, 2016, the Court released its decisions in R. v. Manasseri, 2016 ONCA Continue Reading

Short-Term Parking vs. Long-Term Interests: Applying the Business Judgment Rule to Decisions of Condominium Boards

Posted in Case Comments, Condominium Act, Corporate Law, Securities

The Ontario Court of Appeal recently considered the application of the oppression remedy provision in the Ontario Condominium Act, 1998, SO 1998, c 19 (the “Act”). In doing so, it engaged in a useful – and rare – discussion of the “business judgment rule” outside of the corporate law context, while reinforcing the basic elements of the rule familiar to corporate and securities law practitioners.

Background Continue Reading

Insureds Score a Big Win at the SCC

Posted in Case Comments, Contracts, Insurance

Policyholders recently won a key victory at the Supreme Court of Canada in Ledcor Construction Ltd. v. Northbridge Indemnity Insurance Co. as the Supreme Court clarified the interpretation of a standard form faulty workmanship exclusion clause common in builder’s risk policies.  The decision has wide-reaching significance to other insurance coverage disputes and to contract law generally.

The Supreme Court confirmed that only the cost to redo the faulty work is precluded from coverage by such an exclusion. Builder’s risk, or “course of construction” insurance policies seek to insure against certain defined risks which may occur during the construction process. Such … Continue Reading

The Supreme Court of Canada rules that Québec’s farm income stabilization program is not an insurance contract subject to public law rules

Posted in Administrative, Case Comments, Contracts, Supreme Court of Canada

Overview

Two companion decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada were recently released in cases included on our Appeals to Watch in 2016 list, Ferme Vi-Ber inc. v. Financière agricole du Québec, 2016 SCC 34, and Lafortune v. Financière agricole du Québec, 2016 SCC 35.

Both cases involved the interpretation of the same Québec farm producer income stabilization program (the “ASRA Program”) administered by La Financière agricole du Québec (“La Financière), a statutory authority. The appeals focused on whether the ASRA Program should be governed by public administrative law principles or the private rules of contract law.… Continue Reading

Ontario Court of Appeal Implies New Prohibition Into Rules of Civil Procedure: Pre-Trial Conference Judges Cannot Decide Summary Judgment Motions in the Same Action

Posted in Case Comments, Procedure

The purpose of a pre-trial conference is to provide parties with a forum to obtain an appraisal from a judge of their respective positions on the outstanding issues between them, and provide an opportunity to openly negotiate a resolution of these issues. The ability of the parties to speak freely without concern that their positions in the litigation will be prejudiced is protected by Rules 50.09 and 50.10 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, which provide that (i) the statements made at a pre-trial conference cannot be used in the proceedings, and (ii) the pre-trial conference judge cannot preside … Continue Reading