On February 23, 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada refused leave to appeal the Court of Appeal’s decision in Xela Enterprises Ltd. v. Castillo: a case in which the Court determined that it is acceptable to serve parties in accordance with the Rules of Civil Procedure in states that are not signatories to the Hague Convention.… Continue Reading
On February 16, 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada refused leave to appeal the 2016 decision of the Ontario Court of Appeal in Campbell v. Bruce (County): a case in which an Ontario municipality that operated a mountain biking adventure park (the “Bike Park”) was found liable, as occupier, for the accident that rendered cyclist Stephen Campbell a quadriplegic.… Continue Reading
Is a $5 million fine a less severe punishment than a night in jail? Are hefty financial penalties for quasi-criminal or regulatory offences able to trigger the procedural protections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms when combined with the threat of imprisonment? The Supreme Court of Canada had the opportunity to address these questions when it recently released the twin decisions of R v Peers, 2017 SCC 13 and R v Aitkens, 2017 SCC 14.… Continue Reading
One of the first lessons I remember being taught as a law student about statutory interpretation was to look at both the words of the statute and the purpose Parliament intended in enacting the statute. I quickly learned that statutory interpretation can be somewhat of a headache because, sometimes, the words and the purpose of the statute are at odds with each other. What to do then?… Continue Reading
In Styles v Alberta Investment Management Corporation (“Styles”), the Alberta Court of Appeal provided useful guidance on the application of the organizing principle of good faith in contractual performance, established by the Supreme Court of Canada in its landmark decision Bhasin v Hrynew (“Bhasin”). Since Bhasin, there has been a lack of clarity on how to apply and consider the organizing principle. In Styles, the Alberta Court of Appeal (1) expressly declined to expand the organizing principle to create a “common law duty of reasonable exercise of discretionary contractual powers”, (2) recognized other key … Continue Reading
In two recent companion decisions, the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed the importance of litigation privilege and solicitor-client privilege to the Canadian legal system. In Lizotte v. Aviva Insurance Company of Canada (Lizotte), the Court recognized litigation privilege as a distinct and fundamental principle of the administration of justice, while in Alberta (Information and Privacy Commissioner) v. University of Calgary (Alberta (Information and Privacy Commissioner)), the Court focused on issues of solicitor-client privilege. These decisions both confirm that for the legislature to abrogate either litigation privilege or solicitor-client privilege, nothing less than clear and … Continue Reading
In Mennillo v. Intramodal Inc. 2016 SCC 51, the most recent consideration of the oppression remedy by the Supreme Court of Canada (released on November 18, 2016), the majority confirmed the oppression remedy’s equitable purpose, and held that a corporation’s failure to comply with the CBCA does not, on its own, constitute oppression.
This decision, with particular applicability to small, closely held corporations, reiterated oppression remedy principles set out in the 2008 Supreme Court decision of BCE Inc. v. 1976 Debentureholders, that the remedy is concerned with fairness and business realities, rather than narrow legalities.… Continue Reading
In a decision released on December 8, 2016, the Ontario Court of Appeal allowed an appeal from partial summary judgment, holding that issues of indeterminate auditor liability should proceed to trial.
In 1998, an accounting fraud was discovered at Philip Services Corp. (“Philip”), a publicly traded company. The Plaintiffs alleged that Philip’s auditors, Deloitte and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (“Deloitte”) gave unqualified opinions in connection with its audits of Philip’s consolidated financial statements for the financial years ending December 31, 1995 and 1996.… Continue Reading
The Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Bhasin v. Hrynew – on which this blog has commented – marked a sea change in Canadian contract law. In Bhasin, the Court recognized an “organizing principle of good faith” in contractual relations that underpins numerous specific doctrines, including, for example, unconscionability and the treatment of discretionary contractual powers.… Continue Reading
A recent article, published by McCarthy Tetrault LLP may be of interest to readers of the Canadian Appeals Monitor blog.
The Supreme Court of Canada released a landmark decision on November 17, 2016 giving important guidance on how Canada’s federal privacy law, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, should be interpreted in Royal Bank of Canada v. Trang, 2016 SCC 50.… Continue Reading
As we reported here, the BC Court of Appeal in Acciona Infrastructure Canada Inc. v. Allianz Global Risks US Insurance Company grappled with the proper interpretation of the LEG 2/96 defective workmanship exclusion common in many builder’s risk insurance policies. Applying general principles of contract interpretation the Court held that the exclusion is restricted to denying only those costs that would have been incurred to prevent the damage from happening. Having been unsuccessful on the appeal, the Insurers filed an application for leave to the Supreme Court of Canada.… Continue Reading
In R. v. Anthony‑Cook, 2016 SCC 43, the Supreme Court of Canada recently confirmed that trial judges should only depart from a joint submission in very limited circumstances, where the sentence proposed would bring the administration of justice into disrepute, or is otherwise not in the public interest.
Resolution negotiations are a prevalent and necessary feature of our criminal justice system. They allow the Crown and the accused to avoid the uncertainty, stress and legal costs associated with trials where the accused admits guilt and is not exercising his right to make full answer and defence. Resolutions … Continue Reading
In response to Canada Post’s announcement that it was restructuring its mail delivery and doing away with home delivery services, the City of Hamilton passed a by-law giving the City control over the installation of equipment on municipal roads, including Canada Post’s community mailbox (“CMB”) delivery systems. Last week, the Ontario Court of Appeal held that the by-law was constitutionally inoperative to Canada Post since it conflicted with the federal Canada Post Corporation Act and the Mail Receptacles Regulations. The Court of Appeal’s decision highlights a tension in the pith and substance jurisprudence between the principle of … Continue Reading
As discussed in our previous post, the Supreme Court of Canada recently dramatically altered the framework applicable to the right to a criminal trial within a reasonable time in R. v. Jordan, 2016 SCC 27. This decision has already had a significant impact on the operation of criminal courts in Ontario.
In light of this decision, the Ontario Court of Appeal requested further submissions on two s. 11(b) appeals that had already been argued before the Court under the previous framework. On September 28, 2016, the Court released its decisions in R. v. Manasseri, 2016 ONCA … Continue Reading
The Ontario Court of Appeal recently considered the application of the oppression remedy provision in the Ontario Condominium Act, 1998, SO 1998, c 19 (the “Act”). In doing so, it engaged in a useful – and rare – discussion of the “business judgment rule” outside of the corporate law context, while reinforcing the basic elements of the rule familiar to corporate and securities law practitioners.
Background … Continue Reading
Policyholders recently won a key victory at the Supreme Court of Canada in Ledcor Construction Ltd. v. Northbridge Indemnity Insurance Co. as the Supreme Court clarified the interpretation of a standard form faulty workmanship exclusion clause common in builder’s risk policies. The decision has wide-reaching significance to other insurance coverage disputes and to contract law generally.
The Supreme Court confirmed that only the cost to redo the faulty work is precluded from coverage by such an exclusion. Builder’s risk, or “course of construction” insurance policies seek to insure against certain defined risks which may occur during the construction process. Such … Continue Reading
Two companion decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada were recently released in cases included on our Appeals to Watch in 2016 list, Ferme Vi-Ber inc. v. Financière agricole du Québec, 2016 SCC 34, and Lafortune v. Financière agricole du Québec, 2016 SCC 35.
Both cases involved the interpretation of the same Québec farm producer income stabilization program (the “ASRA Program”) administered by La Financière agricole du Québec (“La Financière), a statutory authority. The appeals focused on whether the ASRA Program should be governed by public administrative law principles or the private rules of contract law.… Continue Reading
The purpose of a pre-trial conference is to provide parties with a forum to obtain an appraisal from a judge of their respective positions on the outstanding issues between them, and provide an opportunity to openly negotiate a resolution of these issues. The ability of the parties to speak freely without concern that their positions in the litigation will be prejudiced is protected by Rules 50.09 and 50.10 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, which provide that (i) the statements made at a pre-trial conference cannot be used in the proceedings, and (ii) the pre-trial conference judge cannot preside … Continue Reading
In Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation Ltd c Hydro-Québec, 2016 QCCA 1229 (English translation here), the Quebec Court of Appeal seemed to contemplate that there may exist a duty to renegotiate a long-term contract where unforeseen circumstances arise which amount to hardship; however, the Court found the facts of the case did not give rise to such a situation so there could be no obligation to renegotiate the contract at issue.
The dispute related to a power contract signed in 1969 between Hydro-Québec and the Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation Limited (“CFLCo”) whereby CFLCo agreed to supply, and … Continue Reading
If there’s one thing that most non-lawyers know about being questioned by the authorities, it’s that “anything said can and will be used against [you] in court”. And, if you’re already in court, then you can “take the Fifth” and refuse to answer a question whose answer may incriminate you.
Right? Not quite.
The privilege against self-incrimination operates differently in Canada than it does in the United States. Here, there is no “Fifth” for a witness to “take”. Unlike the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not permit a witness to answer … Continue Reading
In a decision of interest to barristers, the Ontario Court of Appeal held that the Law Society of Upper Canada is entitled to deference when regulating a lawyer’s in-court conduct in Groia v The Law Society of Upper Canada, 2016 ONCA 471 (“Groia”). The Court of Appeal affirmed the Law Society’s holding that it is professional misconduct to make allegations of prosecutorial misconduct or that impugn the integrity of opposing counsel, unless the allegations are made in good faith and with a reasonable basis.
Joseph Groia defended John Felderhof against securities charges brought by the Ontario … Continue Reading
Solicitor-client privilege is nearly sacrosanct in Canada. The circumstances in which it can be breached are limited and specific. Courts will not abide attempts by the Government to do away with privilege for expediency’s sake or overreach when limiting the application of the privilege. This was recently reinforced by the Supreme Court of Canada in two decisions that considered the CRA’s powers to compel information from lawyers and notaries: Canada (Attorney General) v. Chambre des notaires du Quebec and Canada (National Revenue) v. Thompson.… Continue Reading
For decades members of the judiciary have publicly raised concerns about the swelling length and complexity of criminal cases. In October 2005, Justice Michael Moldaver, then of the Ontario Court of Appeal, stated:
… Continue Reading
Am I worried? You bet I am. Long criminal trials are a cancer on our criminal justice system and they pose a threat to its very existence. You see, ladies and gentlemen, if the criminal justice system does not enjoy the support and respect of those whom it is meant to serve; if criminal trials are seen by the public as little more than interminable games; if
If an individual is born in Alberta, lives and works in BC for more than a decade, then lives and works in Saskatchewan for more than a decade, then moves back to BC temporarily, while simultaneously searching for a residence in Costa Rica, where is this person domiciled?
If you answered Saskatchewan (where the individual had lived and worked for the past decade), British Columbia (where the individual was currently laying his head), or Costa Rica (where the person intended to live and work for the remainder of his days), your common sense has indeed betrayed you. The answer is … Continue Reading